Multiple determinants and effect size
Ahadi, S., & Diener, E. (1989). Multiple determinants and effect size. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(3), 398-406.
Used a Monte Carlo study to investigate the magnitude of various relations among behaviors and traits in the context of a multiple-determinant framework (MDF). It was found that when only 3 traits determined each of 2 behaviors and the 2 behaviors were influenced by only 1 common trait, there was an upper bound correlation of about .30 between the 2 behaviors; there was also an upper bound correlation of about .50 between measures of the common trait and the behaviors. When only 4 traits determined each of the 2 behaviors with both behaviors being influenced by 1 common trait, there was an upper bound correlation of about .25 between the 2 behaviors and an upper bound correlation of about .45 between measures of the common trait and the behaviors. It is argued that researchers should abandon the implicit assumption of a one-to-one relation between traits and behavioral consequences and instead adopt an MDF in the study of behavior, focusing not only on the additive effects of multiple determinants but also on the interactions between these determinants.
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