Effects of prior destructive behavior, anonymity, and group presence on deindividuation and aggression
Diener, E. (1976). Effects of prior destructive behavior, anonymity, and group presence on deindividuation and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33(5), 497-507.
Manipulated 3 of P. G. Zimbardo's (1969) deindividuation input variables (group presence, anonymity, and arousal) in a laboratory experiment with 80 male undergraduates to study their effects on aggression and deindividuation. Only arousal produced a significant increase in aggression, while group presence produced a significant decrease in aggression. Anonymity had no significant effect on Ss' aggressiveness. Deindividuation per se was measured on a postsession qestionnaire that assessed Ss' memory for their own aggressive behavior, self-consciousness, concern for social evaluation, and memory for central and peripheral cues. Only arousal condition participants showed deindividuation changes, but a factor analysis revealed that the deindividuation changes did not comprise a unified factor. Also it did not appear that the internal changes caused aggressive behavior, since the correlation between the 2 variables was low.
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